1681: William Penn granted rights to establish Pennsylvania. Large-scale immigration to the English Colonies begins
1775 – 1783
: American Revolutionary War
1830: US Capitol built. End of Colonial Era

Colonial Era

Because European settlers brought with them the architectural styles from their homelands, Colonial architecture in America varied considerably from region to region.

1789: US Constitution ratified
1801: Beginning of construction on the White House
1861: Beginning of US Civil War marks end of Federal Era

Federal Era

Mirroring the optimism and boldness of a growing nation, Federal architecture incorporated contemporary English details and resurrected Greek motifs.

1837: Queen Victoria I begins reign in United Kingdom
1865: Transcontinental Railroad finished. Rapid industrialization within the US fuels the growth and spread of Victorian designs
1914: Beginning of World War I marks end of Victorian Era.


Changes in manufacturing and construction techniques encouraged architects to start thinking outside the box

Arts & Crafts
1830: Inventions of Railroad and Steam Power lead rapid industrialization of America. Arts & Crafts movement is a reaction against this movement.
1865: End of Civil War marks the beginning of the Arts & Crafts movement in earnest
1918: End of World War I marks the decline of the Arts & Crafts movement

Arts and Crafts

Drawing upon the ideals of craftsmanship and the honest use of native materials, the styles of the Arts and Crafts Movement look back to the Middle Ages, at the same time anticipating the more simplified forms of Modernism.

1919 – 1920: Passage of the 18th and 19th Amendments and the “Roaring 20s” that follow mark the beginning of the Modern movement in earnest
1939 – 1945: World War II
1960s: Beginning of the Post-modern movement


Simplification and abstraction, coupled with post-war structural technologies, fuel the essential sparseness that is Modernism.

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